It will also enable the contracting parties to gradually strengthen their contributions to the fight against climate change in order to achieve the long-term objectives of the agreement.  Lima Call for Climate Action puts the world on the right track after Paris 2015, UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (14 December 2014), newsroom.unfccc.int/lima/lima-call-for-climate-action-puts-world-on-track-to-paris-2015/; At COP17, the parties established the ad hoc working group on a Durban platform to strengthen action and tasked by 2015 to develop “a protocol, another legal instrument or an agreed-upon outcome with the force of law within the framework of the agreement applicable to all contracting parties.” United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, report of the Conference of the Parties to its seventeenth session, held in Durban from 28 November to 11 December 2011. FCC/CP/2011/9/Add.1, 2, Decision 1/CP.17 (March 15, 2012). The Paris Agreement was launched at the signing on April 22, 2016 (Earth Day) at a ceremony in New York.  After the agreement was ratified by several EU member states in October 2016, there were enough countries that had ratified the agreement to produce enough greenhouse gases in the world for the agreement to enter into force.  The agreement came into force on November 4, 2016.  The agreement recognizes the role of non-partisan stakeholders in the fight against climate change, including cities, other sub-national authorities, civil society, the private sector and others. The goal of the agreement is to reduce the global warming described in Article 2 and to improve the implementation of the UNFCCC by” on August 4, 2017, the Trump administration formally informed the United Nations that the United States intends to withdraw from the Paris Agreement as soon as it has a legal right to do so.  The formal declaration of resignation could not be submitted until after the agreement for the United States came into force on November 4, 2019 for a three-year date.   On November 4, 2019, the U.S. government filed the withdrawal notice with the Secretary-General of the United Nations, custodian of the agreement, and formally withdrew from the Paris Agreement a year later, when the withdrawal came into effect.  After the November 2020 elections, President-elect Joe Biden promised to reinstate the United States in the Paris Agreement for his first day in office and renew the U.S. commitment to climate change mitigation.
  The EU and its member states are individually responsible for ratifying the Paris Agreement. There was a strong preference for the EU and its 28 Member States to simultaneously table their ratification instruments to ensure that neither the EU nor its Member States commit to fulfil commitments that are strictly the other` and there was concern that differences of opinion on each Member State`s share of the EU reduction target and the British vote to leave the EU would delay the Paris Pact.  However, on 4 October 2016, the European Parliament approved the ratification of the Paris Agreement and the EU tabled its ratification instruments on 5 October 2016 with several EU Member States.  Section 28 of the agreement allows the parties to terminate the contract following a notification of an appeal to the custodian.