A new theme that has proved to be the centre of gravity of the Paris negotiations was born out of the fact that many of the worst effects of climate change will be too severe or will come too quickly to be avoided by adaptation measures. The Paris Agreement explicitly recognizes the need to repair such losses and damages and seeks to find appropriate responses.  It is specified that losses and damage can take different forms, both as immediate effects of extreme weather events and as slow effects, such as land loss at sea level for deep islands.  The long-term goal of the Paris Agreement is to keep the increase in the average global temperature at a level well below 2 degrees Celsius (3.6 degrees Fahrenheit) above pre-industrial levels; and to continue efforts to limit the increase to 1.5 degrees Celsius, while acknowledging that this would significantly reduce the risks and effects of climate change. This should require a rapid reduction in emissions to achieve “a balance between anthropogenic emissions from sources and the reduction of greenhouse gases from wells” in the second half of the 21st century. It also means increasing the parties` ability to adapt to the negative effects of climate change and “reconciling financial flows with a way to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and climate-resistant development.” Kumi Naidoo, Director General of Greenpeace International, summed up the mood: “It sometimes seems that UN countries can`t agree on anything, but nearly 200 countries have come together and reached an agreement. Today, humanity has joined a common cause. The Paris agreement is only a step on a long road, and there are parts that frustrate, that disappoint me, but it is progress. The chord alone will not take us out of the hole we are in, but it makes the sides less steep. The NRDC is working to make the Global Climate Climate Action Summit a success by inspiring more ambitious commitments to the historic 2015 agreement and enhanced pollution reduction initiatives. The Paris Agreement succeeded in changing the paradigm of climate diplomacy. It has adopted a bottom-up structure for emissions targets (“nationally defined contributions”), offset by top-down provisions to achieve strong global emissions targets and important accountability provisions, such as reporting and auditing. It has shifted the paradigm of differentiation – by continuing to assure developing countries that their growth and development priorities will be fully respected, but they have put in place more flexible means of differentiation than the firewall of the 1990s, established between developed and developing countries.